Controversial, religious, political and instructive literature spread during the European Renaissance thanks to the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg around 1440,[66] while medieval romance evolved into a Novel,[67] it is believed that literature generally includes only works of art. Informative works such as newspapers, scientific journals, religious texts, press releases and spreadsheets are generally not considered literature. Writings considered literature are often discussed. Average readers and literary experts often disagree on what matters as literature. Literary experts also disagree with each other about what literature is and what is not. Usually, literature is defined as “of interest” or importance, which is obviously a subjective quality. Who decides if a piece of writing is important? In the past, the answer was “people who can read.” In your own life, the literature you`ve studied has probably been chosen by an English teacher or literature department at a college. Literature as an art form can also include works in various genres of subjects such as biography, diaries, memoirs, letters, and essay. In its broad definition, literature includes non-fictional books, articles or other printed information on a particular subject. [4] [5] Non-fiction books may fall into the broad category of literature as “any collection of written works,” but some works fall within the narrower definition “because of the excellence of their writing, their originality, and their general aesthetic and artistic merits.” [125] If you want to understand the extravagant family of objects that make up our solar system—from miserable, stuttering comets to massive, annular planets—you could start by diving into the technical terms that fill the scientific literature.

Common literary examples of non-fiction are essays; travel literature and nature literature; biography, autobiography and memoirs; journalism; letters; Journals; History, philosophy, economics; scientific and technical writings. [5] [124] In ancient English literature, there was once a tendency to attribute to Solomon various proverbs that were not in the Bible. Which of the following is NOT considered literature? She wanted to know what had happened in five years, or even 10 years, but the scientific literature didn`t have much to offer. As students analyze the literature, they learn to identify cause and effect and apply critical thinking skills. Without realizing it, they examine the characters psychologically or sociologically. They identify the characters` motivations for their actions and see through these actions to ulterior motives. Psychologist Maslow`s ideas help literary critics understand how characters in literature reflect their personal culture and history. [90] The theory suggests that literature helps an individual`s struggle for self-realization. [91] [92] But it is already necessary to put these assertions into perspective. Using the word writing to describe literature is in itself misleading, as one can speak of “oral literature” or “literature of educated peoples”. The art of literature is not reducible to words on the page; they are only there thanks to the art of writing. As an art, literature could be described as the organization of words to bring joy.

But through words, literature elevates and transforms the experience beyond “simple” pleasure. Literature also functions more broadly in society as a means of criticizing and affirming cultural values. In ancient India, literature was born from stories that were originally transmitted orally. Early genres included drama, fables, sutras, and epic poetry. Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas, dating from 1500-1000 BC. J.-C., and continues with the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India. [41] [42] The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. The Samhitas (Vedic collections) date from about 1500 to 1000 BC. J.-C. Chr., and the “circum-Vedic” texts, as well as the Samhitas edition, date from about 1000 to 2012500 BC, resulting in a Vedic period encompassing the middle of the 2nd to the middle of the 1st millennium BC, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.

[43] Between the 6th and 1st centuries BC. J.-C., the two most influential Indian epics, the Mahabharata[44][45] and the Ramayana[46], were written and edited, the later edition dating back to the 4th century AD. Other important literary works are Ramcharitmanas[47] & Krishnacharitmanas. In addition to empathy for others, readers may feel a greater connection to humanity and less isolated. Students who read literature can find comfort when they realize that others have experienced the same things they are experiencing or have experienced. It can be a catharsis and relief for them when they feel overwhelmed in their difficulties or alone. Literary works, at their best, offer a kind of model of human society. From the writings of ancient civilizations such as Egypt and China to Greek philosophy and poetry, from Homer`s epics to the plays of William Shakespeare, from Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte to Maya Angelou, literary works provide insight and context to all societies around the world.

In this way, literature is more than just a historical or cultural artifact; It can serve as an introduction to a new world of experience. Some studies say that people who read literature have more empathy for others because literature puts the reader in the place of another person. Empathy for others leads people to socialize more effectively, resolve conflicts peacefully, work better together in the workplace, behave morally, and perhaps even participate in making their community a better place. There are many awards that honour achievements and contributions in literature. Given the diversity of the field, prices are usually limited in scope, usually to: form, genre, language, nationality and production (e.g. for first authors or novels). [144] The Hebrew religious text, the Torah, is widely regarded as a product of the Persian period (539-333 BC, probably 450-350 BC). [59] This consensus reflects a traditional Jewish view that gives Ezra, the leader of the Jewish community after his return from Babylon, a central role in its proclamation. [60] It is an important source of the Bible of Christianity, which has had a great influence on Western literature. [61] The Qur`an (610 to 632 AD)[63] ), the most important holy book in Islam, had a significant influence on the Arabic language and marked the beginning of Islamic literature.

Muslims believe it was transcribed into the Arabic dialect of the Quraysh, the tribe of Muhammad. [24] [64] As Islam spread, the Qur`an had the effect of unifying and normalizing Arabic. [24] The earliest known Greek writings are Mycenaean (c. 1600-1100 BC), written in linear B syllabary on clay tablets. These documents contain prosaic documents that deal mainly with trade (lists, inventories, receipts, etc.); No real literature has been discovered. [48] [49] Michael Ventris and John Chadwick, the original decipherers of Linear B, note that literature almost certainly existed in Mycenaean Greece,[49] but was not written or, if so, on parchment or wooden panels that did not survive the destruction of the Mycenaean palaces in the twelfth century BC. J.-C. [49] Homer`s epic poems Iliad and Odyssey are central works of ancient Greek literature.