Dietary calcium use is actually rather with the a lower life expectancy coronary attack issues in the decades- and you may gender-modified design
During 32,024 person-years of follow-up among the 6411 participants (mean age 56 years and 48.2% men), 179 cases (117 men) of incident stroke were identified. According to the quartile of dietary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus intake, the baseline characteristics of the participants were shown in Table 1. After the normality test, we found that some variables do not satisfy the normal distribution (SFA, PUFA). We used the non-parametric test to examine differences and trends between groups, the t-test for the continuous variables with normal distribution, and the chi-square test for the classified variables. Participants with a higher intake of these minerals had higher levels of education and individual incomes. Higher proportions were observed in participants with high calcium intakes than those with lower calcium intakes of smoking and alcohol consumption (39.4% vs. 29.3%; 42.3 vs. 24.2%, respectively). Besides, they tended to be more physically active and consumed more cereal fiber and cholesterol. Subjects with a higher magnesium and phosphorus consumption confirmed nearly comparable traits to individuals with a higher calcium intake. Based on Spearman correlations, calcium intake was strongly positively associated with magnesium intake (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and phosphorus intake (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). Intakes of magnesium and phosphorus were also highly associated (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). After additional adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors (Model 2), this association was slightly strengthened with an HR of 0.59 (95% CI 0.37–0.94, P to have pattern = 0.02) comparing the lowest quartile with the highest quartile. Further adjustment for potential dietary risk (Model 3) still adhered to this association: the multivariate relative risk in the highest, as opposed to the lowest quartile of calcium consumption, was 0.53 (95% CI 0.29–0.96, P to have trend = 0.03).
Zero high connection was discovered anywhere between dietary magnesium consumption and you will coronary attack chance throughout three habits. Completely-model variations, brand new multivariable Time considering evaluating the best and you may lowest quartile out of weight reduction magnesium consumption changed into 0.97 (95% CI 0.5step 1–step one.85, https://datingranking.net/pl/naughtydate-recenzja/ P having development = 0.90). Furthermore, phosphorus consumption just weren’t notably associated with stroke chance (HR: 0.ninety five, 95% CI 0.41–2.03, P for pattern = 0.82) utilising the same modifications.
not, brand new relationship between calcium use and you may coronary attack exposure turned into significantly altered of the gender (P
Table 3 shows stratified analyses of relative risks of stroke in line with quartiles of dietary calcium consumption. The inverse association of calcium intake with stroke development was mostly unchanged among participants with various risk profiles characterized by smoking, drinking, BMI, and hypertension status (all P getting communication > 0.10). to own telecommunications = 0.03). The multivariate-adjusted HR of stroke for the highest vs. the lowest quintile of calcium intake was 0.33 (95% CI 0.15–0.76, P getting development = 0.02) among man and 1.24 (95% CI 0.46–3.35, P having trend = 0.89) among women. Likewise, we also observed a statistically significant interaction between dietary calcium consumption and age in relation to the danger of stroke (P having communication = 0.06), the inverse association for calcium consumption seemed more potent for participants who were more youthful than 60 years, compared with those 60 years and older.
Three sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the potential mediational factors and the robustness of the associations. When we repeated the analyses after excluding patients with hypertension at baseline, the direction and the association did not substantially change, with the HR of stroke for the highest quintile of calcium intake versus the lowest being 0.44 (95% CI 0.29–0.97, P having trend = 0.04) (see Supplementary Table S1 online). Besides, when we used the non-adjusted person time, the results remained the same (HR: 0.53, 95% CI 0.29–0.97, P for trend = 0.03) (see Supplementary Table S2 online). Finally, conducting dyslipidemia (HR: 0.53, 95% CI 0.29–96, P for trend = 0.03) further adjustment did not materially change the association (see Supplementary Table S3 online).